Europa’s buried ocean could rise to the surface

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Europa’s buried ocean could rise to the surface‘Fox News
This animation shows how subsurface ocean water could be transported to the surface on Europa, one of Jupiter's moons.  (NASA/JPL-Caltech/Samuel M. Howell)
Beneath the icy surface of Jupiter’s moon Europa lies a massive liquid ocean ‘ and one new animation shows how this subsurface water could move to the moon’s surface. 
Europa’s ice shell is changed by gravitational interactions with Jupiter, according to a statementAs gravity pulls at Europa’s icy shell, faults form and re-form in the ice ‘ these faults can be seen in the animation as yellow, green and blue lines

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Europa’s Buried Ocean Could Rise to the Surface (Video)

The researchers who made this animation refer to these little white bits as "fossil" ocean material because the pieces spend hundreds of thousands or even millions of years traveling to the moon's surface. Bits that reach the surface could be from over a million years prior, so spacecraft that study these "fossils" would reveal a picture of Europa's ancient ocean.

NASA has plans to further study the moon and will send the Europa Clipper spacecraft to Europa in the early 2020s. This craft will be the first spacecraft intended to study Europa exclusively. The craft will analyze the moon's surface during a series of flybys, looking to figure out what it's made of, and it will likely be able to test and validate this animated simulation, according to the statement.

Southern California’s coastal communities could lose 130 feet of cliffs this century as sea levels rise

It’s not just beaches and sand that are disappearing as the ocean pushes inland. Sea level rise is also eating away at California’s coastal cliffs.

The question is by how much, as Californians have heavily developed and continue to build along the edge of the Pacific.

Scientists are now one step closer to projecting how these bluffs will fare this century — and the outlook is sobering. In Southern California, cliffs could recede more than 130 feet by the year 2100 if the sea keeps rising, according to a new study led by the U.S. Geological Survey.

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Buried Volcanic Vent Heats Up Antarctica’s Fastest

What lurks beneath western Antarctica's frozen surface? Volcanic heat, according to a new study. And that extra warmth might be speeding up the disappearance of the Pine Island Glacier, the continent's fastest-melting glacier.

Chilly Antarctica hides much under thick layers of ice, which extend for miles over its bedrock. Scientists previously found a volcanic rift system stretching under West Antarctica and into the Ross Sea, with as many as 138 volcanoes identified. However, those volcanoes have been dormant for 2,200 years, and evidence that turned up near the Pine Island Glacier pointed to recent magma activity deep underground, the researchers reported.

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